Connecting via Terminal (Linux, Mac, Windows)¶
Connecting via terminal works on every operating system. For Linux and Mac operating systems no additional software is required. For users of a Windows OS a recent version of Windows is required (Windows 10, Build 1809 and higher). It is possible to use Command Prompt or PowerShell). Ensure that OpenSSH is installed on the system.
SSH establishes secure connections using authentication and encryption. The login nodes accept
the following encryption algorithms:
Before Your First Connection¶
We suggest to create an SSH key pair before you work with the ZIH systems. This ensures high connection security.
marie@local$ mkdir -p ~/.ssh marie@local$ ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -f ~/.ssh/id_ed25519 Generating public/private ed25519 key pair. Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): Enter same passphrase again: [...]
Type in a passphrase for the protection of your key. The passphrase should be non-empty.
Copy the public key to the ZIH system (Replace placeholder
marie with your ZIH login):
marie@local$ ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_ed25519.pub email@example.com The authenticity of host 'taurus.hrsk.tu-dresden.de (126.96.36.199)' can't be established. RSA key fingerprint is SHA256:HjpVeymTpk0rqoc8Yvyc8d9KXQ/p2K0R8TJ27aFnIL8. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
Compare the shown fingerprint with the documented fingerprints. Make sure
they match. Then you can accept by typing
ssh-copy-id is not available, you need to do additional steps:
marie@local$ scp ~/.ssh/id_ed25519.pub firstname.lastname@example.org: The authenticity of host 'taurus.hrsk.tu-dresden.de (188.8.131.52)' can't be established. RSA key fingerprint is SHA256:HjpVeymTpk0rqoc8Yvyc8d9KXQ/p2K0R8TJ27aFnIL8. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
After that, you need to manually copy the key to the right place:
marie@local$ ssh email@example.com [...] marie@login$ mkdir -p ~/.ssh marie@login$ touch ~/.ssh/authorized_keys marie@login$ cat id_ed25519.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
Configuring Default Parameters for SSH¶
After you have copied your key to the ZIH system, you should be able to connect using:
marie@local$ ssh firstname.lastname@example.org [...] marie@login$ exit
However, you can make this more comfortable if you prepare an SSH configuration on your local
workstation. Navigate to the subdirectory
.ssh in your home directory and open the file
~/.ssh/config) in your favorite editor. If it does not exist, create it. Put the following lines
in it (you can omit lines starting with
Host taurus #For login (shell access) HostName taurus.hrsk.tu-dresden.de #Put your ZIH-Login after keyword "User": User marie #Path to private key: IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_ed25519 #Don't try other keys if you have more: IdentitiesOnly yes #Enable X11 forwarding for graphical applications and compression. You don't need parameter -X and -C when invoking ssh then. ForwardX11 yes Compression yes Host taurusexport #For copying data without shell access HostName taurusexport.hrsk.tu-dresden.de #Put your ZIH-Login after keyword "User": User marie #Path to private key: IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_ed25519 #Don't try other keys if you have more: IdentitiesOnly yes
Afterwards, you can connect to the ZIH system using:
marie@local$ ssh taurus
If you want to copy data from/to ZIH systems, please refer to Export Nodes: Transfer Data to/from ZIH's Filesystems for more information on export nodes.
If you plan to use an application with graphical user interface (GUI), you need to enable X11-forwarding for the connection. If you use the SSH configuration described above, everything is already prepared and you can simply use:
marie@local$ ssh taurus
If you have omitted the last two lines in the default configuration above, you need to add the
-XC to your SSH command. The
-C enables compression which usually improves
usability in this case:
marie@local$ ssh -XC taurus
Also consider to use a DCV session for remote desktop visualization at ZIH systems.